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Transient tic disorder

Tic - transient tic disorder

Transient tic disorder is a condition in which a person makes one or many brief, repeated, movements or noises (tics). These movements or noises are involuntary (not on purpose).

Causes

Transient tic disorder is common in children.

The cause of transient tic disorder can be physical or mental (psychological). It may be a mild form of Tourette syndrome.

Symptoms

The child may have facial tics or tics involving movement of the arms, legs, or other areas.

Tics may involve:

  • Movements that occur again and again and do not have a rhythm
  • An overwhelming urge to make the movement
  • Brief and jerky movements that include blinking, clenching the fists, jerking the arms, kicking, raising the eyebrows, sticking out the tongue.

The tics often look like nervous behavior. Tics appear to get worse with stress. They do not occur during sleep.

Sounds may also occur, such as:

  • Clicking
  • Grunting
  • Hissing
  • Moaning
  • Sniffing
  • Snorting
  • Squealing
  • Throat clearing

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will consider physical causes of transient tic disorder before making a diagnosis.

In order to be diagnosed with transient tic disorder, the child must have had tics almost every day for at least 4 weeks, but less than a year.

Other disorders such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), uncontrollable movement (myoclonus), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and epilepsy may need to be ruled out.

Treatment

Providers recommend that family members do not call attention to the tics at first. This is because unwanted attention may make the tics worse. If the tics are severe enough to cause problems at school or work, behavioral techniques and medicines may help.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Simple childhood tics usually disappear over a period of months.

Possible Complications

There are usually no complications. A chronic motor tic disorder can develop.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Talk to your child's provider if you are concerned about a transient tic disorder, especially if it continues or disrupts your child's life. If you are not sure whether the movements are a tic or a seizure, call the provider right away.

References

Ryan CA, Trieu ML, DeMaso DR, Walter HR. Motor disorders and habits. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 139.

Tochen L, Singer HS. Tics and Tourette syndrome. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, et al, eds. Swaiman's Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 98.

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    Brain structures

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    • Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

      Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system - illustration

      The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

      Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

      illustration

    • Brain

      Brain - illustration

      The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions.

      Brain

      illustration

    • Brain and nervous system

      Brain and nervous system - illustration

      The nervous system controls the many complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve cells deteriorated in number and facility, causing some lessening in function.

      Brain and nervous system

      illustration

    • Brain structures

      Brain structures - illustration

      The structures of the brain include the brainstem, consisting of the spinal cord, the medulla oblongata, the pons and the midbrain; the cerebellum; the cerebrum (one half, or hemisphere shown), and the diencephalon.

      Brain structures

      illustration


     

    Review Date: 2/27/2018

    Reviewed By: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper Medical School at Rowan University, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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