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Diabetes

Diabetes - type 1; Diabetes - type 2; Diabetes - gestational; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Gestational diabetes; Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.

Causes

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.

To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal process by which food is broken down and used by the body for energy. Several things happen when food is digested and absorbed:

  • A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source of fuel for the body.
  • An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. The role of insulin is to move glucose from the bloodstream into muscle, fat, and other cells, where it can be stored or used as fuel.

People with diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar from the blood into muscle and fat cells to be burned or stored for energy, and/or because their liver makes too much glucose and releases it into the blood. This is because either:

  • Their pancreas does not make enough insulin
  • Their cells do not respond to insulin normally
  • Both of the above

There are two major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type:

  • Type 1 diabetes is less common. It can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. This is because the pancreas cells that make insulin stop working. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause of the failure to make enough insulin is unknown.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common. It most often occurs in adulthood, but because of high obesity rates, children and teens are now being diagnosed with this disease. Some people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. With type 2 diabetes, the body is resistant to insulin and doesn't use insulin as well as it should. Not all people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.
  • There are other causes of diabetes, and some people cannot be classified as type 1 or type 2.

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes.

If your parent, brother, or sister has diabetes, you may be more likely to develop the disease.

Type 2 Diabetes Facts

  • If you eat too much sugar over a long time, you may develop type 2 diabetes.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is false. Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses the hormone insulin. Insulin helps move blood sugar (glucose) into cells, where it is stored to be used for energy. Eating too much sugar won't cause diabetes. But it may make you overweight, which can put you at risk for diabetes.
  • Being overweight makes it harder for your body to properly use insulin.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Extra fat in the body makes it harder for the body to use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. Losing excess weight and being active can help prevent or reverse insulin resistance.
  • Which of the following health conditions does NOT put you at risk for type 2 diabetes?

     

    A. Having diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes)

     

    B. Having three or more risk factors for heart disease and diabetes (metabolic syndrome)

     

    C. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

     

    D. Asthma

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is asthma. All of the other conditions increase your risk for diabetes. If you have any of these conditions, work with your doctor to control your risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.
  • You can have diabetes for years and not know it.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. That's why it's important to talk with your doctor about whether you should have diabetes screening tests. People with high blood pressure, who are over age 45, and those who are overweight and have other risk factors should consider being tested for diabetes.
  • What are early symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

     

    A. No symptoms at all

     

    B. Bladder, kidney, or skin infections that are more frequent or heal slowly

     

    C. Fatigue

     

    D. Hunger, increased thirst

     

    E. Needing to urinate a lot

     

    F. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. If you notice any of these symptoms, talk with your doctor.
  • If you have a blood sugar level higher than ____ , your doctor may test you for diabetes.

     

    A. 100 mg/dL

     

    B. 200 mg/dL

     

    C. 400mg/dL

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is 200 mg/dL. If your blood sugar is at this level, your doctor may give you these tests to confirm that you have diabetes: Fasting blood glucose level -- diabetes: higher than 126 mg/dL 2 times, Hemoglobin A1c test -- diabetes: 6.5% or higher, Oral glucose tolerance test -- diabetes: higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours
  • What health care problems are caused by diabetes?

     

    A. Eye problems

     

    B. Skin and foot infections

     

    C. High blood pressure and high cholesterol

     

    D. Nerve and kidney damage

     

    E. Digestive problems

     

    F. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Over time, too much sugar in the blood can harm your eyes, kidneys, nerves, skin, heart, and blood vessels. Talk with your doctor about the best ways to keep your blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol level in a healthy range.
  • Which are treatments for type 2 diabetes?

     

    A. Healthy diet and regular exercise

     

    B. Monitoring your blood glucose

     

    C. Diabetes medicines taken by mouth

     

    D. Insulin

     

    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. The main treatment for type 2 diabetes is diet and exercise. If you still have trouble managing your blood sugar level, you may need medicine or insulin. Work with your health care provider to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet.
  • If you have type 2 diabetes, you will have to inject insulin.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

     

    C. Maybe

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is maybe. Many people can control type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise and diabetes medicines if needed. However, if your blood sugar remains uncontrolled, you may need to inject insulin.
  • Having diabetes increases your risk for heart disease.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Diabetes directly affects your heart, plus it makes it hard to control cholesterol. This can lead to heart disease and other problems. A healthy diet, regular exercise, and eating less salt can help control diabetes, blood pressure, and cholesterol. This will reduce your risk of heart disease.
  • Some people with diabetes no longer need medicine if they lose weight and exercise.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Some people with type 2 diabetes no longer need medicine if they lose weight and become more active. When they reach their ideal weight, their body's own insulin and a healthy diet can control their blood sugar levels.

Symptoms

A high blood sugar level can cause several symptoms, including:

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period. People may be very sick by the time they are diagnosed.

After many years, diabetes can lead to other serious problems. These problems are known as diabetes complications, and include:

  • Eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night), light sensitivity, and blindness
  • Sores and infections of the leg or foot, which if untreated, can lead to amputation of the leg or foot
  • Damage to nerves in the body, causing pain, tingling, a loss of feeling, problems digesting food, and erectile dysfunction
  • Kidney problems, which can lead to kidney failure
  • Weakened immune system, which can lead to more frequent infections
  • Increased chance of having a heart attack or stroke

Exams and Tests

A urine analysis may show high blood sugar. But a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes.

Your health care provider may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is higher than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done.

Blood tests:

  • Fasting blood glucose level. Diabetes is diagnosed if the fasting glucose level is higher than 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) on two different tests. Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL (5.5 and 7.0 mmol/L) are called impaired fasting glucose or prediabetes. These levels are risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
  • Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) test. Normal is less than 5.7%; prediabetes is 5.7% to 6.4%; and diabetes is 6.5% or higher.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) 2 hours after drinking a sugar drink (this test is used more often for type 2 diabetes).

Screening for type 2 diabetes in people who have no symptoms is recommended for:

  • Overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes, starting at age 10 and repeated every 3 years.
  • Overweight adults (BMI of 25 or higher) who have other risk factors such as having high blood pressure, or having a mother, father, sister or brother with diabetes.
  • Adults over age 45, repeated every 3 years.

Treatment

Type 2 diabetes can sometimes be reversed with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight with exercise and by eating healthier foods. Some cases of type 2 diabetes can also be improved with weight loss surgery.

There is no cure for type 1 diabetes (except for a pancreas or islet cell transplant).

Treating either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes involves nutrition, activity and medicines to control blood sugar level.

Everyone with diabetes should receive proper education and support about the best ways to manage their diabetes. Ask your provider about seeing a certified diabetes educator (CDE).

Getting better control over your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels helps reduce the risk for kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system disease, heart attack, and stroke.

To prevent diabetes complications, visit your provider at least 2 to 4 times a year. Talk about any problems you are having. Follow your provider's instructions on managing your diabetes.

Support Groups

Many resources can help you understand more about diabetes. If you have diabetes, you can also learn ways to manage your condition and prevent diabetes complications.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Diabetes is a lifelong disease for most people who have it.

Tight control of blood glucose can prevent or delay diabetes complications. But these problems can occur, even in people with good diabetes control.

Possible Complications

After many years, diabetes can lead to serious health problems:

  • You could have eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night), and light sensitivity. You could become blind.
  • Your feet and skin can develop sores and infections. After a long time, your foot or leg may need to be amputated. Infection can also cause pain and itching in other parts of the body.
  • Diabetes may make it harder to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. This can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other problems. It can become harder for blood to flow to your legs and feet.
  • Nerves in your body can get damaged, causing pain, tingling, and numbness.
  • Because of nerve damage, you could have problems digesting the food you eat. You could feel weakness or have trouble going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can make it harder for men to have an erection.
  • High blood sugar and other problems can lead to kidney damage. Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. They may even stop working so that you need dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Your immune system can weaken, which can lead to frequent infections.

Prevention

Keeping an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent or delay the start of type 2 diabetes. If you're overweight, losing just 5% of your body weight can reduce your risk. Some medicines can also be used to delay or prevent the start of type 2 diabetes.

At this time, type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. But there is promising research that shows type 1 diabetes may be delayed in some high risk people.

References

American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S13-27. PMID: 29222373 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29222373.

Atkinson MA. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 32.

Polonsky KS, Burant CF. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 31.

  • Diabetes

    Diabetes

    Animation

  •  

    Diabetes - Animation

    Diabetes is on the rise worldwide, and is a serious, lifelong disease that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and lasting nerve, eye and foot problems. Let's talk about diabetes and the difference between the three types of diabetes. So, what exactly is diabetes and where does it come from? An organ in your body called the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that controls the levels of your blood sugar. When you have too little insulin in your body, or when insulin doesn't work right in your body, you can have diabetes, the condition where you have abnormally high glucose or sugar levels in your blood. Normally when you eat food, glucose enters your bloodstream. Glucose is your body's source of fuel. Your pancreas makes insulin to move glucose from your bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where your body turns it into energy. People with diabetes have too much blood sugar because their body cannot move glucose into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be changed into and stored for energy. There are three major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body makes little or no insulin. It usually is diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But about 80% of people with diabetes have what's called Type 2 diabetes. This disease often occurs in middle adulthood, but young adults, teens, and now even children are now being diagnosed with it linked to high obesity rates. In Type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond to insulin appropriately. Another type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. It's when high blood sugar develops during pregnancy in a woman who had not had diabetes beforehand. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. But, still pay attention. These women are at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes over the next 5 years without a change in lifestyle. If you doctor suspects you have diabetes, you will probably have a hemoglobin A1c test. This is an average of your blood sugar levels over 3 months. You have pre-diabetes if your A1c is 5.7% to 6.4%. Anything at 6.5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a wake up call to focus on diet and exercise to try to control your blood sugar and prevent problems. If you do not control your blood sugar, you could develop eye problems, have problems with sores and infections in your feet, have high blood pressure and cholesterol problems, and have kidney, heart, and problems with other essential organs. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day, usually injected under the skin using a needle. Some people may be able to use a pump that delivers insulin to their body all the time. People with Type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar through diet and exercise. But if not, they will need to take one or more drugs to lower their blood sugar levels. The good news is, people with any type of diabetes, who maintain good control over their blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure, have a lower risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system problems, heart attack, and stroke, and can live, a long and healthy life.

  • Using a multi-dimensional approach to treat diabetes

    Using a multi-dimensional approach to treat diabetes

    Animation

  •  

    Using a multi-dimensional approach to treat diabetes - Animation

    Ways to treat and manage diabetes.

  • Type 2 Diabetes foot and leg care

    Type 2 Diabetes foot and leg care

    Animation

  •  

    Type 2 Diabetes foot and leg care - Animation

    Diabetes complications: Help decrease your risk for developing leg or foot problems by getting yearly foot and leg exams.

  • Endocrine glands

    Endocrine glands - illustration

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the rate of metabolism in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).

    Endocrine glands

    illustration

  • Diabetic retinopathy

    Diabetic retinopathy - illustration

    Diabetes causes an excessive amount of glucose to remain in the blood stream which may cause damage to the blood vessels. Within the eye the damaged vessels may leak blood and fluid into the surrounding tissues and cause vision problems.

    Diabetic retinopathy

    illustration

  • Islets of Langerhans

    Islets of Langerhans - illustration

    Islets of Langerhans contain beta cells and are located within the pancreas. Beta cells produce insulin which is needed to metabolize glucose within the body.

    Islets of Langerhans

    illustration

  • Pancreas

    Pancreas - illustration

    The pancreas is located behind the liver and is where the hormone insulin is produced. Insulin is used by the body to store and utilize glucose.

    Pancreas

    illustration

  • Insulin pump

    Insulin pump - illustration

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal fat of a person with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin is then injected into the body in a calculated, controlled manner.

    Insulin pump

    illustration

  • Type I diabetes

    Type I diabetes - illustration

    In response to high levels of glucose in the blood, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas secrete the hormone insulin. Type I diabetes occurs when these cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system.

    Type I diabetes

    illustration

  • Diabetic blood circulation in foot

    Diabetic blood circulation in foot - illustration

    People with diabetes are at risk for blood vessel injury, which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet.

    Diabetic blood circulation in foot

    illustration

  • Food and insulin release

    Food and insulin release - illustration

    Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increased glucose levels in the blood.

    Food and insulin release

    illustration

  • Insulin production and diabetes

    Insulin production and diabetes - illustration

    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells to be able to use blood sugar.

    Insulin production and diabetes

    illustration

  • Monitoring blood glucose - Series

    Monitoring blood glucose - Series

    Presentation

  • Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - abdomen

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - abdomen - illustration

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a chronic skin disease characterized by shiny plaques that vary in color from light yellowish to reddish-tan. It is seen more commonly in women. Although the name implies diabetes and the majority of cases occur in diabetics, this condition can occur in individuals without diabetes.

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - abdomen

    illustration

  • Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - leg

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - leg - illustration

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a chronic skin disease characterized by shiny plaques that vary in color from light yellowish to reddish-tan. It is seen more commonly in women. Although the name implies diabetes and the majority of cases occur in diabetics, this condition can occur in individuals without diabetes.

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - leg

    illustration

  • Diabetes

    Animation

  •  

    Diabetes - Animation

    Diabetes is on the rise worldwide, and is a serious, lifelong disease that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and lasting nerve, eye and foot problems. Let's talk about diabetes and the difference between the three types of diabetes. So, what exactly is diabetes and where does it come from? An organ in your body called the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that controls the levels of your blood sugar. When you have too little insulin in your body, or when insulin doesn't work right in your body, you can have diabetes, the condition where you have abnormally high glucose or sugar levels in your blood. Normally when you eat food, glucose enters your bloodstream. Glucose is your body's source of fuel. Your pancreas makes insulin to move glucose from your bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where your body turns it into energy. People with diabetes have too much blood sugar because their body cannot move glucose into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be changed into and stored for energy. There are three major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body makes little or no insulin. It usually is diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But about 80% of people with diabetes have what's called Type 2 diabetes. This disease often occurs in middle adulthood, but young adults, teens, and now even children are now being diagnosed with it linked to high obesity rates. In Type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond to insulin appropriately. Another type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. It's when high blood sugar develops during pregnancy in a woman who had not had diabetes beforehand. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. But, still pay attention. These women are at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes over the next 5 years without a change in lifestyle. If you doctor suspects you have diabetes, you will probably have a hemoglobin A1c test. This is an average of your blood sugar levels over 3 months. You have pre-diabetes if your A1c is 5.7% to 6.4%. Anything at 6.5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a wake up call to focus on diet and exercise to try to control your blood sugar and prevent problems. If you do not control your blood sugar, you could develop eye problems, have problems with sores and infections in your feet, have high blood pressure and cholesterol problems, and have kidney, heart, and problems with other essential organs. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day, usually injected under the skin using a needle. Some people may be able to use a pump that delivers insulin to their body all the time. People with Type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar through diet and exercise. But if not, they will need to take one or more drugs to lower their blood sugar levels. The good news is, people with any type of diabetes, who maintain good control over their blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure, have a lower risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system problems, heart attack, and stroke, and can live, a long and healthy life.

  • Using a multi-dimensional approach to treat diabetes

    Animation

  •  

    Using a multi-dimensional approach to treat diabetes - Animation

    Ways to treat and manage diabetes.

  • Type 2 Diabetes foot and leg care

    Animation

  •  

    Type 2 Diabetes foot and leg care - Animation

    Diabetes complications: Help decrease your risk for developing leg or foot problems by getting yearly foot and leg exams.

  • Endocrine glands

    Endocrine glands - illustration

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the rate of metabolism in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).

    Endocrine glands

    illustration

  • Diabetic retinopathy

    Diabetic retinopathy - illustration

    Diabetes causes an excessive amount of glucose to remain in the blood stream which may cause damage to the blood vessels. Within the eye the damaged vessels may leak blood and fluid into the surrounding tissues and cause vision problems.

    Diabetic retinopathy

    illustration

  • Islets of Langerhans

    Islets of Langerhans - illustration

    Islets of Langerhans contain beta cells and are located within the pancreas. Beta cells produce insulin which is needed to metabolize glucose within the body.

    Islets of Langerhans

    illustration

  • Pancreas

    Pancreas - illustration

    The pancreas is located behind the liver and is where the hormone insulin is produced. Insulin is used by the body to store and utilize glucose.

    Pancreas

    illustration

  • Insulin pump

    Insulin pump - illustration

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal fat of a person with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin is then injected into the body in a calculated, controlled manner.

    Insulin pump

    illustration

  • Type I diabetes

    Type I diabetes - illustration

    In response to high levels of glucose in the blood, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas secrete the hormone insulin. Type I diabetes occurs when these cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system.

    Type I diabetes

    illustration

  • Diabetic blood circulation in foot

    Diabetic blood circulation in foot - illustration

    People with diabetes are at risk for blood vessel injury, which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet.

    Diabetic blood circulation in foot

    illustration

  • Food and insulin release

    Food and insulin release - illustration

    Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increased glucose levels in the blood.

    Food and insulin release

    illustration

  • Insulin production and diabetes

    Insulin production and diabetes - illustration

    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells to be able to use blood sugar.

    Insulin production and diabetes

    illustration

  • Monitoring blood glucose - Series

    Presentation

  • Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - abdomen

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - abdomen - illustration

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a chronic skin disease characterized by shiny plaques that vary in color from light yellowish to reddish-tan. It is seen more commonly in women. Although the name implies diabetes and the majority of cases occur in diabetics, this condition can occur in individuals without diabetes.

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - abdomen

    illustration

  • Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - leg

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - leg - illustration

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a chronic skin disease characterized by shiny plaques that vary in color from light yellowish to reddish-tan. It is seen more commonly in women. Although the name implies diabetes and the majority of cases occur in diabetics, this condition can occur in individuals without diabetes.

    Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum - leg

    illustration

A Closer Look

 

Talking to your MD

 

Self Care

 

 

Review Date: 2/22/2018

Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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