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Stress and your health

Anxiety; Feeling uptight; Stress; Tension; Jitters; Apprehension

Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. It can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous.

Stress is your body's reaction to a challenge or demand. In short bursts, stress can be positive, such as when it helps you avoid danger or meet a deadline. But when stress lasts for a long time, it may harm your health.

Considerations

Stress is a normal feeling. There are two main types of stress:

  • Acute stress. This is short-term stress that goes away quickly. You feel it when you slam on the brakes, have a fight with your partner, or ski down a steep slope. It helps you manage dangerous situations. It also occurs when you do something new or exciting. All people have acute stress at one time or another.
  • Chronic stress. This is stress that lasts for a longer period of time. You may have chronic stress if you have money problems, an unhappy marriage, or trouble at work. Any type of stress that goes on for weeks or months is chronic stress. You can become so used to chronic stress that you don't realize it is a problem. If you don't find ways to manage stress, it may lead to health problems.

STRESS AND YOUR BODY

Your body reacts to stress by releasing hormones. These hormones make your brain more alert, cause your muscles to tense, and increase your pulse. In the short term, these reactions are good because they can help you handle the situation causing stress. This is your body's way of protecting itself.

When you have chronic stress, your body stays alert, even though there is no danger. Over time, this puts you at risk for health problems, including:

If you already have a health condition, chronic stress can make it worse.

SIGNS OF TOO MUCH STRESS

Stress can cause many types of physical and emotional symptoms. Sometimes, you may not realize these symptoms are caused by stress. Here are some signs that stress may be affecting you:

  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Forgetfulness
  • Frequent aches and pains
  • Headaches
  • Lack of energy or focus
  • Sexual problems
  • Stiff jaw or neck
  • Tiredness
  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
  • Upset stomach
  • Use of alcohol or drugs to relax
  • Weight loss or gain

How Well Are You Managing Stress?

  • Which of the following situations cause stress?

     

    A. Getting married

     

    B. Death of a spouse or loved one

     

    C. Money problems

     

    D. Getting fired

     

    E. Getting injured

     

    F. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Any major change can cause stress, even good change. Changing how you react to stress and doing relaxation exercises can help.
  • Stress produces the following changes in the body:

     

    A. Increased heart rate

     

    B. Increased blood pressure

     

    C. Immune system changes

     

    D. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Stress causes changes in the body that can make it harder for your body to fight disease. Talk to your doctor about how you can better control your body’s natural response to stress.
  • Ongoing stress can increase your risk for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Some stress is healthy, but excessive stress can cause health problems, or make them worse. Talk to your doctor if you think some of your symptoms are related to stress.
  • Which of the following are symptoms of stress?

     

    A. Back pain

     

    B. Constipation or diarrhea

     

    C. Headache

     

    D. High blood pressure

     

    E. Insomnia

     

    F. Weight gain

     

    G. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Stress doesn’t always produce clear symptoms. Even minor symptoms, such as upset stomach, stiff neck, or hiccups can be related to stress. If you notice symptoms of stress, take time to relax every day.
  • Children rarely feel stress.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is false. Children often feel stress because they can't communicate their feelings. Physical symptoms, such as stomachaches, can be a sign of stress in a child. If you are a parent, try to lower your own stress level. When you are stressed, it can cause stress in your child.
  • Some studies show that job stress may be as bad for your health as smoking or not exercising.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Stress makes it hard to concentrate, causes sleeplessness, and increases the risk for illness, back problems, accidents, and lost time from work. Think about ways to take stress out of your work life. Take time to go for a walk during lunch, or find other ways to relax during the work day.
  • Which of the following activities can help you feel less stress?

     

    A. Owning a pet

     

    B. Exercising

     

    C. Spending time with friends

     

    D. Deep breathing

     

    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Spending time with friends, going for a run, playing with your dog, or doing deep breathing can lower your stress level. Try different ways to relieve stress and see what works best for you.
  • Over-the-counter medicines can relieve stress.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is false. Medicine can’t make stress go away, but it can help you manage stress symptoms. Pain relievers can help ease tension headaches, and antacids and laxatives help an upset stomach. A better idea is to learn healthy ways to deal with stress. If you can't manage stress on your own, talk with a therapist.
  • Which of the following activities can help you ward off the effects of stress?

     

    A. Eating a healthy diet

     

    B. Exercising

     

    C. Avoiding alcohol and caffeine

     

    D. Discussing your feelings

     

    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. All of these activities improve your health and help you deal with stress. To make stress easier to handle, eat a balanced healthy diet, exercise daily, and express your feelings to friends, loved ones, a therapist, or in a journal.
  • Which of the following help you learn to relax?

     

    A. Deep breathing exercises

     

    B. Muscle relaxation

     

    C. Meditation

     

    D. Biofeedback

     

    E. Massage

     

    F. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

     

    G. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. There are many different relaxation techniques that can help you deal with stress. Talk to your doctor about what type of relaxation therapy is right for you.
  • Living a stressful life is unavoidable.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is false. Most people feel stress, but you can learn to manage it and even avoid it. Making healthy changes in your habits, learning to say no, setting priorities, and leading a healthful lifestyle are just a few ways you can combat stress. Talk with your health care provider about how to manage the stress in your life.

Causes

The causes of stress are different for each person. You can have stress from good challenges and as well as bad ones. Some common sources of stress include:

  • Getting married or divorced
  • Starting a new job
  • The death of a spouse or close family member
  • Getting laid off
  • Retiring
  • Having a baby
  • Money problems
  • Moving
  • Having a serious illness
  • Problems at work
  • Problems at home

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call a suicide hotline if you have thoughts of suicide.

Call your health care provider if you feel overwhelmed by stress, or if it is affecting your health. Also call your provider if you notice new or unusual symptoms.

Reasons you may want to seek help are:

  • You have feelings of panic, such as dizziness, rapid breathing, or a racing heartbeat.
  • You are unable to work or function at home or at your job.
  • You have fears that you cannot control.
  • You are having memories of a traumatic event.

Your provider may refer you to a mental health care provider. You can talk to this professional about your feelings, what seems to make your stress better or worse, and why you think you are having this problem. You may also work on developing ways to reduce stress in your life.

References

Ahmed SM, Hershberger PJ, Lemkau JP. Psychosocial influences on health. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 3.

National Institute of Mental Health website. 5 things you should know about stress. www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/stress/index.shtml. Accessed June 1, 2018.

Vaccarino V, Bremner JD. Psychiatric and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 96.

  • Insomnia

    Insomnia

    Animation

  •  

    Insomnia - Animation

    Do you have trouble falling asleep at night? Or, do you go to sleep, only to wake up a few hours later and stay awake for hours at night? Well, let's today talk about insomnia. Your sleep-wake cycle is a delicate pattern run by something called circadian rhythms. These rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes in your brain that roughly follow a 24-hour cycle. Your daily and nightly habits, many you learned as a child, may affect your circadian rhythms and how well you sleep at night. Poor sleep or lifestyle habits that may cause insomnia include going to bed at different times each night, daytime napping, and a poor sleeping environment such as too much noise or light. Spending too much in time in bed while you're awake can change your sleep patterns too. Likewise, working evenings or night shifts and not getting enough exercise can affect your sleep. People who use alcohol or recreational drugs may have trouble sleeping. Heavy smoking and drinking too much caffeine can also cause insomnia. And, even using some types of sleep medications a lot can cause you to lose sleep. Medical problems can cause insomnia too. People with anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, thyroid disease, depression, and chronic pain problems may have trouble going to sleep or staying asleep. So, what do you do about insomnia? Well, it's important to remember that not everyone needs 8 hours of sleep every night. Some people do just fine on 6 hours of sleep, while others need much more. If you need more sleep, your doctor will probably ask about any medications you're taking, your drug or alcohol use, and your medical history. Spend some time thinking about your lifestyle and sleep habits. It's best to avoid caffeine and alcohol at night. If you don't exercise, starting regular exercise might help you sleep better. If you're depressed or anxious, talk to your doctor to see if relaxation techniques can help, if medication might be helpful, or if seeing a mental health provider is best. If you're suffering from bouts of insomnia, take heart. Most people can return to more normal sleep patterns when they make simple changes in their lifestyle or habits.

  • Generalized anxiety disorder

    Generalized anxiety disorder - illustration

    Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry about 2 or more life circumstances for a period of 6 months or longer. Biological and genetic factors may combine with stress to produce psychological symptoms.

    Generalized anxiety disorder

    illustration

  • Stress and anxiety

    Stress and anxiety - illustration

    Physical activity and relaxation techniques can help reduce stress and anxiety. Proper nutrition can also help the body to handle stress better by keeping it running optimally. If stress becomes unmanageable, there are professional individuals such as licensed social workers and psychologists who are trained to help people deal with their stress and anxiety.

    Stress and anxiety

    illustration

  • Insomnia

    Animation

  •  

    Insomnia - Animation

    Do you have trouble falling asleep at night? Or, do you go to sleep, only to wake up a few hours later and stay awake for hours at night? Well, let's today talk about insomnia. Your sleep-wake cycle is a delicate pattern run by something called circadian rhythms. These rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes in your brain that roughly follow a 24-hour cycle. Your daily and nightly habits, many you learned as a child, may affect your circadian rhythms and how well you sleep at night. Poor sleep or lifestyle habits that may cause insomnia include going to bed at different times each night, daytime napping, and a poor sleeping environment such as too much noise or light. Spending too much in time in bed while you're awake can change your sleep patterns too. Likewise, working evenings or night shifts and not getting enough exercise can affect your sleep. People who use alcohol or recreational drugs may have trouble sleeping. Heavy smoking and drinking too much caffeine can also cause insomnia. And, even using some types of sleep medications a lot can cause you to lose sleep. Medical problems can cause insomnia too. People with anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, thyroid disease, depression, and chronic pain problems may have trouble going to sleep or staying asleep. So, what do you do about insomnia? Well, it's important to remember that not everyone needs 8 hours of sleep every night. Some people do just fine on 6 hours of sleep, while others need much more. If you need more sleep, your doctor will probably ask about any medications you're taking, your drug or alcohol use, and your medical history. Spend some time thinking about your lifestyle and sleep habits. It's best to avoid caffeine and alcohol at night. If you don't exercise, starting regular exercise might help you sleep better. If you're depressed or anxious, talk to your doctor to see if relaxation techniques can help, if medication might be helpful, or if seeing a mental health provider is best. If you're suffering from bouts of insomnia, take heart. Most people can return to more normal sleep patterns when they make simple changes in their lifestyle or habits.

  • Generalized anxiety disorder

    Generalized anxiety disorder - illustration

    Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry about 2 or more life circumstances for a period of 6 months or longer. Biological and genetic factors may combine with stress to produce psychological symptoms.

    Generalized anxiety disorder

    illustration

  • Stress and anxiety

    Stress and anxiety - illustration

    Physical activity and relaxation techniques can help reduce stress and anxiety. Proper nutrition can also help the body to handle stress better by keeping it running optimally. If stress becomes unmanageable, there are professional individuals such as licensed social workers and psychologists who are trained to help people deal with their stress and anxiety.

    Stress and anxiety

    illustration


 

Review Date: 5/5/2018

Reviewed By: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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